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Aug 10, 2020 · Tolosa Hunt syndrome (THS) is described as severe and unilateral periorbital headache associated with painful and restricted eye movements. Synonyms for Tolosa Hunt syndrome include painful ophthalmoplegia, recurrent ophthalmoplegia, ophthalmoplegia syndrome. Tolosa Hunt syndrome is one of the rare disorders recognized by the National Organisation for Rare Disorders (NORD).Cited by: 6
May 04, 2021 · May 04, 2021 · Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is a painful ophthalmoplegia caused by nonspecific inflammation of the cavernous sinus or superior orbital fissure. In 2004, the International Headache Society provided a definition of the diagnostic criteria, which included granuloma. [ 1] See the image below. MRI of a 40-year-old man with severe periorbital pain ...
Mar 25, 2013 · Mar 25, 2013 · Tolosa Hunt syndrome (THS) is a rare condition characterized by painful ophthalmoplegia (paralysis and/or weakness of the eye muscles). Onset can occur at any age. Signs and symptoms include a constant pain behind the eye; decreased eye movements; and signs of cranial nerve paralysis such as drooping of the upper eyelid (ptosis), double vision (diplopia), large pupil, and facial …
The city is on the banks of the River Garonne , kilometres 93 miles from the Mediterranean Sea , km mi from the Atlantic Ocean and km mi from Paris. It is the fourth-largest commune in France , with , inhabitants within its municipal boundaries as of January , after Paris , Marseille and Lyon , ahead of Nice ; it has a population of 1,, within its wider metropolitan area also as of January The University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe founded in and, with more than , students, it is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the universities of Paris , Lyon and Lille. The air route between Toulouse—Blagnac and the Parisian airports is the busiest in France, transporting 3. Founded by the Romans, the city was the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom in the 5th century and the capital of the province of Languedoc in the Late Middle Ages and early modern period provinces were abolished during the French Revolution , making it the unofficial capital of the cultural region of Occitania Southern France. It is now the capital of the Occitanie region , the second largest region in Metropolitan France. Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Too much precipitation during the summer months prevents the city from being classified as a Mediterranean climate zone. Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC, when it became a Roman military outpost. After the conquest of Gaul , it was developed as a Roman city in Gallia Narbonensis. Under the reign of Emperor Augustus and thanks to the Pax Romana , the Romans moved the city a few kilometres from the hills where it was an oppidum to the banks of the Garonne, which were more suitable for trade. Around the year , Toulouse was marked by the martyrdom of Saturnin , the first bishop of Toulouse. This episode illustrates the difficult beginnings of Christianity in Roman Gaul. From that time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm. Many Arab chroniclers consider that Odo's victory was the real stop to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe , incursions of the following years being simple raids without real will of conquest including the one that ended with Charles Martel 's victory at the Battle of Tours , also called the Battle of Poitiers. The Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the s, and a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th century. In , Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse , left with his army at the call of the Pope to join the First Crusade , of which he was one of the main leaders. In the 12th century the notables of the city took advantage of a weakening of the county power to obtain for their city a great autonomy, they created a municipal body of consuls called capitouls in Toulouse to lead the city. At the beginning of the thirteenth century the county of Toulouse was taken in another crusade, of which it was the target this time. The reason for this was the development of Catharism in the south of France, which the Pope wanted to eradicate by all possible means. This struggle took on several aspects, going beyond the military crusade , such as the creation of an original and militant Gothic architecture: the Southern French Gothic. In , the Dominican Order was founded in Toulouse by Saint Dominic in the context of struggle against the Cathar heresy. In the Treaty of Paris of , Toulouse formally submitted to the crown of France. The marriage became legal in , but it remained childless and so after Joan's death, the county fell to the Crown of France by inheritance. Also in , University of Toulouse was established after the Parisian model , intended as a means to dissolve the heretic movement. They found home in Les Jacobins. The fear of repression forced the leading figures to exile or to convert themselves. The inquisition lasted nearly years, making Toulouse its capital. In , Toulouse was incorporated into the kingdom of France and declared a " royal city ". The 14th century brought a pogrom against Toulouse's Jewish population by Crusaders in ,  the Black Death in , then the Hundred Years' War. Despite strong immigration, the population lost 10, inhabitants in 70 years. By Toulouse had only 19, people. This military threat to the city and especially to the surrounding countryside was not conducive to its development. In spite of this, the 14th century saw a significant increase in the influence of the University of Toulouse, particularly following the move of the papacy from Rome to Avignon. These powerful prelates financed the establishment of colleges in the university towns of southern France, not only Toulouse but also Montpellier and Avignon. In Pope Urban V attributed to the Dominican church of the Jacobins of Toulouse the bones of the famous Dominican theologian Saint Thomas Aquinas , perhaps to honor the city that had been the cradle of the Dominican order at the beginning of the previous century. The political and economic situation improved in the 15th century. Reinforcing its place as an administrative and judicial center, the city grew richer, participating in the trade of Bordeaux wine with England, as well as cereals and textiles. A major source of income was the production and export of pastel , a blue dye made from woad. Toulouse suffered several fires, but it was in that the Great Fire of Toulouse broke out, ravaging the city for fifteen days. The capitouls issued municipal decrees favouring the use of brick in buildings, rather than excessively flammable wood or cob. In the French Wars of Religion began and Toulouse became an ultra-Catholic stronghold in a predominantly Protestant region, the era of economic prosperity came to an end. In Pierre-Paul Riquet started the construction of the Canal du Midi which links Toulouse to the Mediterranean Sea, and is considered one of the greatest construction works of the 17th century. Completed in , the canal stimulated the economy of Toulouse by promoting the export of cereals wheat and corn and the import of oil and other goods from the Mediterranean regions. In the 18th century, Toulouse was a provincial capital that prided itself on its royal academies the only city in France, along with Paris, to have three royal academies , but seemed far removed from the debates of ideas that agitated the Enlightenment. A famous example illustrates this backwardness of Toulouse mentalities of the time: in its powerful Parliament sentenced Jean Calas to death. The philosopher Voltaire then accused the Parliament of Toulouse of religious intolerance Calas was a Protestant , gave the affair a European repercussion and succeeded in having the judgment of the Parliament quashed by the King's Council, which did much damage to the reputation of the Parliament. It was on this occasion that Voltaire published one of his major philosophical works: his famous Treatise on Tolerance. With the French Revolution of and the reform or suppression of all royal institutions, Toulouse lost much of its power and influence: until then the capital of the vast province of Languedoc, with a Parliament ruling over an even larger territory, the city then found itself simply at the head of the single small department of Haute-Garonne. On 10 April , four days after Napoleon 's surrender of the French Empire to the nations of the Sixth Coalition a fact that the two armies involved were not yet aware of , the Battle of Toulouse pitted the Hispanic-British troops of Field Marshal Wellington against the French troops of Napoleonic Marshal Soult , who, although they managed to resist, were forced to withdraw. Toulouse was thus the scene of the last Franco-British battle on French territory. Unlike most large French cities, there was no real industrial revolution in 19th century Toulouse.
In , Toulouse was incorporated into the kingdom of France and declared a " royal city ". Many cultural institutions were created, in order to attract foreign expatriates and emphasise the city's past. Caring for Your Patient with a Rare Disease. Arch Ophthalmol. Related information. THS; Painful ophthalmoplegia; Nonspecific inflammation of the cavernous sinus or superior orbital fissure; THS; Painful ophthalmoplegia; Nonspecific inflammation of the cavernous sinus or superior orbital fissure; Tolosa-Hunt syndrome See More. Every relapse should ideally be investigated with a full work up as Tolosa Hunt syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion. Menu Search Eur Radiol. Almost all the buildings of the historical centre were made with the traditional building material of the region: the "foraine" brick that has earned the city the nickname of Ville Rose Pink city. In the railway arrived in Toulouse and the city was modernised: the ramparts were replaced by large boulevards, and major avenues such as the rue d'Alsace-Lorraine and the rue de Metz opened up the historic centre. Tramway line T2 is a branch of the first line serving notably Toulouse Blagnac airport. Renaissance portal in Jardin des plantes. These powerful prelates financed the establishment of colleges in the university towns of southern France, not only Toulouse but also Montpellier and Avignon. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Recent Activity. White stone is also present in smaller quantities. These colleges were supported by the Church, in hopes of reconciling Greek philosophy and Christian theology. Glucocorticoids have been the mainstay of the treatment ever since the syndrome was first described. It is now the capital of the Occitanie region , the second largest region in Metropolitan France. Precipitation totals in inches. PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Tolosa Hunt syndrome. Tolosa Hunt syndrome usually does not have any other neurological or systemic involvement. Tessitore E, Tessitore A. The hallmark of this syndrome is a pain, which can be described as sharp, shooting, stabbing, boring, severe, and intense. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 9 min, while The Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. In the last third of the 18th century, the ever increasing influence of the Parisian model meant that red brick was no longer popular: the city facades were then covered with white paint to imitate stone. Toulouse was thus the scene of the last Franco-British battle on French territory. Under the reign of Emperor Augustus and thanks to the Pax Romana , the Romans moved the city a few kilometres from the hills where it was an oppidum to the banks of the Garonne, which were more suitable for trade. Toulouse Olympique represents the city in rugby league. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tolosa. Authority control. Retrieved 27 March Updated 28 April Toulouse is twinned with: . Imaging studies like MRI can be repeated for follow-up, but usually, lag behind a few weeks as compared to symptomatic improvement. In Pierre-Paul Riquet started the construction of the Canal du Midi which links Toulouse to the Mediterranean Sea, and is considered one of the greatest construction works of the 17th century. We want to hear from you. Marseille Lyon. Clear Turn Off Turn On. Former tower of the city archives, except for the 19th century roof. Musically, Toulouse is one of the two controversial, disputed birthplaces of Carlos Gardel the other being Tacuarembo , Uruguay , probably the most prominent figure in the history of the tango. Cranial nerve palsies improve gradually and can take anywhere from two to eight weeks for recovery. The average age of onset is 41 years according to the National Organization for Rare Disorder. Epub Feb
Research helps us better understand diseases and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment. This section provides resources to help you learn about medical research and ways to get involved. Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD. These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional. Questions sent to GARD may be posted here if the information could be helpful to others. We remove all identifying information when posting a question to protect your privacy. If you do not want your question posted, please let us know. Submit a new question. I find that there is very little info about the treatment of this condition. Any info that you can provide would be appreciated. See answer. National Institutes of Health. COVID is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Menu Search Home Diseases Tolosa Hunt syndrome. You can help advance rare disease research! Other Names:. THS; Painful ophthalmoplegia; Nonspecific inflammation of the cavernous sinus or superior orbital fissure; THS; Painful ophthalmoplegia; Nonspecific inflammation of the cavernous sinus or superior orbital fissure; Tolosa-Hunt syndrome See More. Congenital and Genetic Diseases ; Eye diseases. Summary Summary. Treatment Treatment. Left untreated, symptoms may resolve spontaneously after an average of about eight weeks. Glucocorticoids have long been the recommended treatment for Tolosa Hunt syndrome. Little consideration has been given to alternative therapies, probably due to the typical rapid response to glucocorticoids pain usually resolves within 24 to 72 hours after starting treatment. However, there are little data other than case series to determine the most effective dose, the route and schedule of administration, or the length of therapy. Furthermore, while it is known that glucocorticoids relieve the pain associated with the condition, there is no definitive evidence that associated cranial neuropathies recover any faster with or without treatment. These individuals typically undergo a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of THS. Improvement seen on MRI is often not seen until several weeks after signs and symptoms improve. Do you have updated information on this disease? We want to hear from you. Research Research. Patient Registry The Autoimmune Registry supports research for Tolosa Hunt syndrome by collecting information about patients with this and other autoimmune diseases. You can join the registry to share your information with researchers and receive updates about participating in new research studies. Learn more about registries. Organizations Organizations. Organizations Supporting this Disease. Organizations Providing General Support. Do you know of an organization? Learn More Learn More. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them. In-Depth Information Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free. The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health.